Citizenship by investment (CBI) DaTABASE

CITIZENSHIP Acquisition 

(FINANCIAL ASSETS) 

Country
Article in Law
Procedure
Conditions
Albania
Article 9(7) of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person is someone whose acquisition of citizenship would be in the special economic interest of Albania. Other eligibility requirements: no danger to security and defence of the country.
Antigua and Barbuda
Investment Act 5
Naturalisation
Person makes a non-refundable donation of US$100,000 into the National Development Fund or an approved charity, or invests US$400,000 in an approved real estate project, or invests US $1,500,000 into a business as a sole investor (or as a joint venture involving at least two people, provided the total value of the investment is at least $5,000,000). Other eligbility requirements include no criminal record and yearly residence requirement of at least 35 days.
Argentina
Article 2(2)(3) of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person has established a new industry or introduced a useful invention. Other eligibility requirements: 2-years' residence requirement is waived, but ordinary naturalisation requirements apply including clean criminal record and oath of loyalty.
Austria
Article 11a(4)(4) of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person has been resident in Austria for 6 years and acquisition of citizenship is in the economic interest of the country. Other eligibility requirements include clean criminal record, proficiency in German, and renunciation of other citizenship. Under Article 10(6), Austria may grant citizenship for rendering 'oustanding services' to the country, in which case many of the abovementioned requirements are waived.
Belize
Article 12(a) of the Citizenship Act
Registration
Person has, as an 'economic citizen', made a substantial contribution to the economy and/or well-being of Belize, or has rendered distinguished services to the country. Other eligibility requirements: good character and sound mind.
Brazil
Article 12(2)a of the Constitution, Article 113(5) of the Foreigners Act, Article 2 of the National Immigration Council Normative Resolution no. 84
Naturalisation
Person owns real estate in Brazil, or as a business man has invested at least the amount of R$150,000,00 (approximately US$75,000), and has been permanently resident in the country for at least 3 years immediately prior to the application and continues to do so. Other eligibility requirements include knowledge of Portuguese and no conviction for major crimes.
Bulgaria
Article 16 of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person has special achievements in the economic sphere. Ordinary naturalisation conditions are waived.
Bulgaria
Article 14(a) of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person invested 1 million BGN, or an amount otherwise specified in the Investment Promotion Act. Other eligibility requirements: 1 year of permanent residence and no conviction for major crimes under Bulgarian law.
Burkina Faso
Article 170(4) of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person is an industrialist or business person, who has important investments or who brings funds, according to the laws in force.
Cambodia
Article 10-11 of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person has invested an amount of 1,250,000,000 Riels (approximately US$300,000) in Cambodia and is resident in Cambodia. Other conditions: 7-year residence requirement is waived but ordinary naturalisation conditions apply including clean criminal record, ability to speak the Khmer language, and knowledge of Khmer script and history.
Cambodia
Article 12 of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person has donated an amount of 1,000,000,000 Riels for the restoration and rebuilding of the Cambodian economy. Other eligibility conditions are the same as under Articles 10-11.
Cape Verde
Article 12(3)-(4) of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person has realised or offers guarantees that will make investments that will unequivocally increase the opportunities for employment and contribute to the development of the country. Naturalisation under this provision does not grant political rights, including to vote or be elected or to exercise public functions on a permanent basis.
Central African Republic
Article 28(3) of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person has made important real estate investments. No other eligibility requirements except for 5 year residence requirement (which may be waived).
Comoros
Complete text of the Citizenship Act is relevant
Naturalisation
Person is an 'economic partner' of Comoros, investing a minimum sum to be fixed by the budget law each year.
Cyprus
Article 111 of the Citizenship Act, Schedule 3 Article 2(f)
Naturalisation
Person invested 2 million euros (different types of investment are possible). Other eligibility conditions: clean criminal record, not on the list of persons whose property has been frozen by the EU, own real estate in Cyprus (minimum of 0,5 million euros).
Dominica
Article 101 of the Constitution, Article 8 and 20(1) of the Citizenship Act, the 2014 Commonwealth of Dominica Citizenship by Investment Regulations and the Citizenship by Investment (Amendment) Regulations
Naturalisation
Person invested a non-refundable contribution to the national development fund (US$100,000 for a single applicant) or invested US $200,000 in a government-approved real estate project. Other eligibility requirements include clean criminal record and basic knowledge of English.
Dominican Republic
Article 18(7) of the Constitution, Article 1c of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person has been resident in the DR for at least 6 months uninterrupted, and has founded urban or rural industries or owns real estate in the country. No residence requirement if person owns more than 30 hectares of land in the country, but permission must be granted to establish domicile in the country.
Grenada
Citizenship by Investment Act 2013
Naturalisation
Person makes an investment of US$350,000 in real estate (which must be held for at least three years) or the investor makes a non-refundable contribution of US$200,000 to the Grenada National Transformation Fund (this includes the main applicant with a spouse and two dependents. There is a further fee of US$25,000 for each additional family member).
Guinea
Article 73 of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person has rendered important services to Guinea such as artistic, literary or scientific talents, the introduction of useful industries or inventions, or creation of industrial or agricultural businesses. Other eligibility conditions include 2 years' residence requirement and no conviction for serious crimes.
Kosovo
Article 10(3) of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person is someone whose acquisition of citizenship would be in the special economic interest of Kosovo.
Kyrgyzstan
Article 13 of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person has invested in highly prioritised sectors of the economy of the country and has been resident for 3 years. Other eligibility conditions include knowledge of the official language (sufficient for communication), commitment to comply with the Constitution and legislation of the country.
Macedonia
Article 11 of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person invested significant capital in Macedonia. Other conditions: no threat to security or defense of the country.
Malta
Article 10(9)b of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person invested a combined amount of 0,8 million euros and owns property valued at 0,35 million euros (or rents property at 16,000 euros p/a). Other conditions: 1 year effective residence in Malta, proof of moral standing, clean criminal record, health certificate and insurance, and oath of allegiance.
Mauritius
Article 9(3) of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person has invested at least US$500,000 in Mauritius. Other eligibility conditions include residence (person must have been resident for at least 5 out of the previous 7 years, including 12 months preceding the application, but this requirement may be waived), adequate knowledge of English or any other language current in Mauritius and of the responsibilities of a citizen, and renounce other citizenship. Modified conditions apply to Commonwealth citizens.
Mexico
Article 20(1)d of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person has been resident in Mexico for 2 years (requirement can be waived) and has provided outstanding services/products to Mexico or employed entrepreneurial activities in the country.
Montenegro
Article 12 of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person is someone whose acquisition of citizenship would be in the special economic interest of Montenegro.
Nicaragua
Article 9 of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person has been permanently resident in Nicaragua for 2 years, and has established an industry or exercises an activity that contributes to the economic, social or cultural development of the country. Other eligibility conditions: renunciation of citizenship of another country.
Pakistan
Article 20 of the Citizenship Act, and secondary legislation
Registration
Commonwealth citizens who transfer PKR 5 million (approximately US$40,000) worth of foreign exchange to Pakistan, may apply for citizenship. After confirmation from the State Bank of Pakistan of the transaction of the said amount, an immigrant visa is issued. A Pakistan Citizenship Certificate is granted upon arrival in the country.
Philippines
Article 3(2) of the Commonwealth Act no. 473
Naturalisation
Person has been continuously resident in the Philippines for 5 years and established a new industry or introduced a useful invention in the Philippines. Numerous other eligibility conditions apply including irreproachable conduct, belief in the principles underlying the Constitution, written and oral knowledge of English or Spanish or any other principal Philippine language.
Romania
Article 8(2)d of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person has invested 1 million euros or more in Romania and is born in and resident there, or has been resident in Romania for 4 years. Other eligibility conditions: good behaviour and loyalty to Romania, no threat to national security, sufficient resources to support him/herself, proficiency in Romanian language and knowledge of the country's culture, history, Constitution and national anthem.
Russia
Article 14(2)g of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person conducts an economic activity in Russia for at least 3 years and the activity generates revenue in the amount of 10 million rubles (approximately US$150,000). Other eligibility conditions: observing the laws of Russia, lawful means of subsistence, application filed for renunciation of the foreign citizenship, proficiency in Russian language. Naturalisation can be rejected due to the person's criminal record and participation in anti-state or terrorist activities.
Russia
Article 14(2)h of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person holds 10% of shares of a Russian company (in Russia) whose assets are at least 100 million rubles, with mandatory insurance payment of 6 million rubles per year. Other eligibility conditions: same as above.
Russia
Article 14(2)i of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person worked in the Russian Federation for at least 3 years, and his or her job is on the list of designated professions. Other eligibility conditions: same as above.
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Article 3(5) of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person makes a non-refundable donation into the Sugar Industry Diversification Fund (US$250,000 for a single applicant), or invests US$400,000 in an approved real estate project (the property must be held for at least five years). Other eligibility requirements include clean criminal record.
Saint Lucia
Citizenship by Investment Act 2015
Naturalisation
Person makes a non-refundable donation to the National Economic Fund. Amount starts at US$100,000 for a single applicant and increases if there are accompanying dependents; or purchase of approved property worth at least US$300,000 and holds it for 5 years; or the person invests in a government bond for five years. The principal is returned without interest. Amount starts at US$500,000 and increases if there are accompanying dependents; or investment of min. US$3.5 million in an approved investment project. Joint ventures are permitted of at least US$6 million, with each person contributing min. US$1 million.
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Article 9a of the Citizenship Act
Registration
Person has made an important contribution to the cultural or economic growth of St Vincent for at least 5 years. Other conditions: good behaviour, knowledge of English and of duties of a citizen.
Seychelles
Article 5C of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person has invested the equivalent of US$1 million and has supported him or herself for 11 years in Seychelles. Other conditions: pass language test, and not sentenced to more than 1 year imprisonment.
Singapore
Article 123(1)c of the Constitution
Registration
Person is an industrialist investing a minimum amount of US$250,000 in Singapore. Other eligibility conditions: residence ("10 out of 12 years" requirement may be waived if the person resided in Singapore for 5 out of 6 years, or at the discretion of the Government), good character, adequate knowledge of the national language, intent to make Singapore his/her permanent home, renunciation of citizenship of another country, and oath of allegiance.
Slovakia
Article 7(2)(b) of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person is someone of special benefit to Slovakia in the area of economics. Other eligibility conditions include no criminal procedure initiated against the person, reasonable knowledge of language and culture of Slovakia, fulfilled tax and other legal obligations.
Slovenia
Article 13 of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person is an adult whose acquisition of citizenship is beneficial for the country for economic reasons. Requirements of renunciation of other citizenship and knowledge of Slovenian language are waived, but other requirements include means of subsistence and settled tax obligations, no criminal record, no threat to public order, security or national defence, oath to respect the free democratic constitutional order of Slovenia.
Sri Lanka
Article 13A(1)(a)i, 15 and 18 of the Citizenship Act
Registration
Person has been granted a 5-year visa or endorsement under the Immigrants and Emigrants Act, has been registered in a Resident Guest Scheme for foreign investors, and has made a substantial contribution to the economic development of the country. Other eligibility conditions: intent to continue to ordinarily reside in Sri Lanka, renunciation of citizenship of another country, and oath of allegiance.
Turkey
Article 12 of the Citizenship Act
Naturalisation
Person has invested in Turkey by establishing an industrial plant/factory. No residence requirement. Other eligibility conditions include good morals, not have a health condition that is dangerous to the person's surrounding, sufficient knowledge of the Turkish language, not pose a threat to national security and public order.
Vanuatu
2017 Development Support Progamme
Naturalisation into honorary citizenship
Persons makes a Government Contribution of US$130,000. With additional due diligence fees and application fees, the citizenship fee comes to a total of $195,000 for single applicants.

Source: This database is based on data adapted from: GLOBALCIT (2017). Global Database on Modes of Acquisition of Citizenship, version 1.0. San Domenico di Fiesole: Global Citizenship Observatory / Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies / European University Institute. Available at: http://globalcit.eu/acquisition-citizenship/. The information has been updated and further information has been added in relation to investment requirements by Future Citizen Institute.